Since late 1950s scientists have been studying and working with Nano particles with help of microscopes. Nano particles are particles between 1 and 100 nanometer in size. Nano particles are as small as atoms and this had opened up world of opportunities in variety of engineering applications. After finding of nano particles, Nanotechnology came into existence. Nanotechnology itself is defined as the study of nano particles. Now a days Nanotechnology is being used in medicine, electronics, food , fuel cells , space, fabrics , and many more.
Nanoelectronics is defined as use of nanotechnology in electronics, specifically in electronic components. It is one of the most powerful and useful studies that have helped engineers to implement new properties. It plays vital role in electronics and electrical engineering. The main goal of Nano electronics is to produce devices with reduced size, surface area, and risk factors. A device produced through Nano electronics undergoes long manufacturing steps, each step linked with accurate molecular treatment. Individual parts of a machine are handled automatically. The integrated circuits that are present in Nano electronic devices are known as microelectronics. Nano electronics improves the capabilities of electronic components, such as by reducing the size of transistors, by improving the screen display in electronic devices which reduces the power consumption and also the weight and thickness of the screens. It is even heard that researches are trying to develop a type of memory chip, which would have projected density of one terabyte of memory per square inch.
Applications of Nano electronics: Under Development
Below is the list of some of the nanoelectronics applications:
- Cadmium selenide nanocrystals deposited on plastic sheets are to form flexible electronic circuits. Researchers are aiming for a combination of flexibility, a simple fabrication process and low power requirements.
- Integrating silicon nanophotonics components into CMOS integrated circuits. This optical technique is intended to provide higher speed data transmission between integrated circuits than is possible with electrical signals.
- Developing a lead free solder reliable enough for space missions and other high stress environments using copper nanoparticles.
- Transistors built in single atom thick graphene film to enable very high-speed transistors.
- Building transistors from carbon nanotubes to enable minimum transistor dimensions of a few nanometers and developing techniques to manufacture integrated circuits built with nanotube transistors.
- Researchers have developed an interesting method of forming PN junctions, a key component of transistors, in graphene.
- Nanowires that would enable flat panel displays to be flexible made from electrodes and many more….
Future of Nanoelectronics
Some people like to say Nanoelectronics is the future electronics. We have known that since the born of electronics silicon has been the backbone element for integrated circuits. Even the Santa Clara Valley of California was renamed as what we now know as the Silicon Valley- the world of electronics companies! But as engineers in field of electronics are suggesting that silicon era in semiconductor devices, specifically in transistor is on verge of ending. Since many decades, we have been able to get smaller, faster electronic devices merely by reducing the size of transistors, but size reduction itself simply cannot deliver the necessary increases in performance anymore. New chemically synthesized nanostructure might be suitable for various advanced functions that are difficult to achieve with more conventional silicon-based materials. This is possible by use of nanoelectronics; the best example is the invention of World’s smallest transistor that is 1nm wide and was created with the help of carbon nanotubes and molybdenum disulfide (MoS2). This transistor is world’s smallest working transistor till date. Ali Javey and Sujay Desai created it.
Thus, the nanoscale is the scale of atoms and molecules, the fundamental building blocks of the material world and future applications will increase including treating cancer, generating renewable energy and providing clean water anytime, anyplace. The greatest challenge to benefiting from nanotechnology is having the foresight to develop and use it wisely.
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